AWS EBS - Elastic Block Store

In this article we will see that what is AWS EBS - Elastic Block store.

What is AWS EBS?

Amazon Elastic Block Store (Amazon EBS) is a raw block-level storage service designed to be used with Amazon EC2 instances. When mounted to Amazon EC2 instances, Amazon EBS volumes can be used like any other raw block device. They can be formatted with a specific file system, host operating systems and applications, and have snapshots or clones made from them.

Every Amazon EBS volume that is provisioned will be automatically replicated to other storage devices in the same Availability Zone inside the AWS region to offer redundancy and high availability (guaranteed 99.999% by Amazon). 

AWS also offers seamless encryption of data at rest (both boot and data volumes) using Amazon-managed keys or keys customers create through Amazon Key Management Service (KMS).

Types of EBS Volumes

There are two Amazon EBS volume type categories: SSD-backed volumes and HDD-backed volume.

SSD-backed volumes are optimized for transactional workloads, where the volume
 performs a lot of small read/write operations. The performance of such volumes 
is measured in IOPS (input/output operations per second).

HDD-backed volumes are designed for large sequential workloads where 
throughput is much more important (and the performance is measured with 
MiB/s). Each category has two subsets.

Creating a new EBS volume

Login to an AWS account and select the desired region in the top right corner of the browser. 
Click on “Services” at the top left corner of the screen and select “EC2”.

In the left navigation pane, under “EC2 Dashboard,” locate the “Elastic Block Store” subsection and select “Volumes.” A dialog displays. Click “Create Volume”.

In the pop-up window, customize the volume (type, size, IOPS or throughput), select the desired Availability Zone, and decide whether or not to use encryption. Click “Create”

Attach an EBS Volume to an EC2 Instance

To attach an EBS volume to an Amazon EC2 instance, right-click it and select “Attach”. 
Please note that the volume will need to be formatted inside the operating system being used.

Create a Snapshot of an EBS Volume

Go to Snapshots Tab in Left side and Click on “Create Snapshot”

Click on Create Snapshot

AWS S3 Simple Storage Service 

What is S3 (Simple Storage Service)?

Amazon S3 (Simple Storage Service) is a scalable, high-speed, low-cost web-based service designed for online backup and archiving of data and application programs.
It allows to upload, store, and download any type of files up to 5 TB in size.

This means customers of all sizes and industries can use it to store and protect any amount of data for a range of use cases, such as websites, mobile applications, backup and restore, archive, enterprise applications, IoT devices, and big data analytics. 

Amazon S3 provides easy-to-use management features so you can organize your data and configure finely-tuned access controls to meet your specific business, organizational, and compliance requirements.
Amazon S3 is designed for 99.999999999% (11 9's) of durability, and stores data for millions of applications for companies all around the world.

How S3 works?

Amazon S3 Features

Low cost and Easy to Use − Using Amazon S3, the user can store a large amount of data at very low charges.

Secure − Amazon S3 supports data transfer over SSL and the data gets encrypted automatically once it is uploaded. The user has complete control over their data by configuring bucket policies using AWS IAM.

Scalable − Using Amazon S3, there need not be any worry about storage concerns. We can store as much data as we have and access it anytime.

Higher performance − Amazon S3 is integrated with Amazon CloudFront, that distributes content to the end users with low latency and provides high data transfer speeds without any minimum usage commitments.

Integrated with AWS services − Amazon S3 integrated with AWS services include Amazon CloudFront, Amazon CloudWatch, Amazon Kinesis, Amazon RDS, Amazon Route 53, Amazon VPC, AWS Lambda, Amazon EBS, Amazon Dynamo DB, etc.

IAM (Identity and Access Management) in AWS

What is IAM?

AWS Identity and Access Management (IAM) enables you to manage access to AWS services and resources securely. 

Using IAM, you can create and manage AWS users and groups, and use permissions to allow and deny their access to AWS resources.

IAM is a feature of your AWS account offered at no additional charge.

When you first create an AWS account, you need a single sign-in identity to access all AWS services. This identity is called the AWS account root user. You can access it by signing in with the email ID and password that you used to create the account. 

AWS IAM helps in performing the following tasks:

It is used to set users, permissions and roles. It allows you to grant access to the different parts of the AWS platform 

Also, it enables Amazon Web Services customers to manage users and user permissions in AWS 

With IAM, Organizations can centrally manage users, security credentials such as access keys, and permissions

IAM enables the organization to create multiple users, each with its own security credentials, controlled and billed to a single AWS account

IAM allows the user to do only what they need to do as a part of the user’s job

Benefit of IAM in AWS?

Shared access to your AWS account: You can grant other people permission to administer and use resources in your AWS account without having to share your password or access key.

Granular permissions: You can grant different permissions to different people for different resources.

Secure access to AWS resources: You can use IAM features to securely provide credentials for applications that run on EC2 instances. These credentials provide permissions for your application to access other AWS resources.

Multi-factor authentication (MFA): You can add two-factor authentication to your account and to individual users for extra security.

Identity federation: You can allow users who already have passwords elsewhere

Identity information for assurance: You receive log records that include information about those who made requests for resources which is based on IAM identities.

PCI DSS Compliance: IAM supports the processing, storage, and transmission of credit card data by a merchant or service provider, and has been validated as being compliant with Payment Card Industry (PCI) Data Security Standard (DSS).

Integrated with many AWS services: There are a number of AWS services that work with IAM.

Eventually Consistent: IAM achieves high availability by replicating data across multiple servers within Amazon’s data centers around the world. The change is committed and safely stored when you request for some modification.

Free to use: When you access other AWS services using your IAM users or AWS STS temporary security credentials, only then you will be charged.

IAM Components

Users – Create individual users.

Groups – Manage permissions with groups.

Permissions – Grant least privilege.

Auditing – Turn on AWS CloudTrail.

Password – Configure a strong password policy.

MFA – Enable MFA for privileged users.

Roles – Use IAM roles for Amazon EC2 instances.

Sharing – Use IAM roles to share access.

Rotate – Rotate security credentials regularly.

Conditions – Restrict privileged access further with conditions.

Root – Reduce or remove use of root.

Automatic Server open in Safe mode

In this article we will see that sometimes, a domain controller can be stuck in a boot loop where it will only start in recovery mode after you have reverted to a previous configuration from a snapshot

To fix this, you will have to:

1) log in with a local admin account

2) run the following commands: cd \ cd windows\system32\recovery

bcdedit.exe /deletevalue safeboot
shutdown /r /t 0

You will then be able to log in with your domain account and the server will no longer boot in recovery mode.

On-Premise, IaaS, PaaS, SaaS 

In this article we will see about what is on-premise, IaaS, PaaS, SaaS of Cloud services.

On-premise: Infrastructure and software that's installed in the same building as your business

IaaS - Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS): cloud-based services, pay-as-you-go for services such as storage, networking, and virtualization.

PaaS - Platform as a Service (PaaS): hardware and software tools available over the internet.

SaaS - Software as a Service (SaaS) : software that's available via a third-party over the internet.

Example :- 

Find out Even and Odd number from different different types in python

In this article we will see that how to find out even and odd number from different different types in python, let us know if any issue you face and comment.

First step : Retrieving elements from the list

Second step : In for loop by using Range function

Third step : Putting user input to calculate Even and Odd number